On this day in history : 9th February 1649 – The funeral of King Charles I, who was beheaded in Whitehall, London – the only English king to be executed….
Like his father before him Charles believed in the ‘Divine Rights of Kings’…. It was his belief that kings were chosen by God – and so he only had God to answer to…. He refused to consider the views of others….especially in religious and parliamentary matters. He dissolved Parliament several times and governed the Country alone…. He was determined to hold on to his absolute power and thought it his sole right to make the Laws of the Land – and to go against him was a sin against God…. He was something of a dictator perhaps….
This of course made him unpopular both with the people and his own Parliament…. Eventually it was to lead to civil war….the Royalists against the Parliamentarians (Roundheads), led by Oliver Cromwell….
Gradually the Roundheads gained the upper hand…. Charles fled London but eventually surrendered to the Scots – who handed him over to Cromwell…. Charles was imprisoned in 1646 – and kept at Hampton Court Palace – but managed to escape…. He was recaptured and then held at Carisbrooke Castle, on the Isle of Wight….where he was treated well….
Charles refused to repent or admit defeat – and on the 1st of January 1649 he was put on trial at Westminster Hall….accused of being a “tyrant, traitor and murderer; and a public and implacable enemy to the Commonwealth of England”….
Charles refused to defend himself – not recognising the legality of the court…. His date of execution was set for the 30th of January 1649….
Charles is usually portrayed as an arrogant man – but by all accounts in private he was gentle and polite…. He was shy in public which came over as arrogance…. He was a particularly loving father to his six children and spent his last few days at St. James’s Palace consoling them….
On the morning of the day of the execution, a bitterly cold Tuesday, he rose early…. He asked for two thick shirts as he didn’t want to shiver and have the crowds think he was shaking from fear…. At 10am he walked with his guards to Whitehall Palace where he was to wait in his bedchamber until the call to the scaffold was made….
The call came just before 2pm…. The scaffold was set up just outside Banqueting Hall in Whitehall – and was draped in black…. The executioner and his assistant were hooded, so as not to be recognised….
Despite the bitter January weather a huge crowd had gathered – but were held back at a considerable distance from the scaffold, in case of unrest…. So far away in fact, that few were able to catch the words of the King’s final speech….
….” I shall go from a corruptible to an incorruptible Crown, where no disturbance can be, no disturbance in the world”….
At just after 2pm King Charles I was dead; beheaded with a single blow….and an audible groan was heard from the crowd…. Charles may not have been the most popular of kings but he had faced his death with courage – his personal dignity had won him much sympathy from the public….
The King’s embalmed body – with head re-attached – remained on public view at St. James’s Palace until the 7th of February. The Committee of Parliament refused permission for a burial at Westminster Abbey but allowed his being laid to rest in St. George’s Chapel at Windsor Castle….
Usually a king’s funeral would be filled with pomp and ceremony but the funeral of King Charles I was a very different affair. The only English king to have been tried and executed for treason is now buried in the vault of King Henry VIII and Jane Seymour…. On the 30th of January every year a Service of Commemoration is held at Banqueting House and a wreath laid at his statue outside the Banqueting Hall, the site of his execution….
3 thoughts on “On this day in history….9th February 1649”
I found this post really interesting. Do you know who decided on King Charles’s punishment? I’m guessing that because no monarch had ever been put on trial before there wouldn’t have been a precedent when it came to deciding what should happen to Charles for being a “tyrant, traitor and murderer”. Was it the judge who decided that Charles deserved to be executed? I am also really curious who decided how Charles would be put to death. Do you know why Charles was beheaded rather than, say, hanged? Was beheading less painful than hanging and did Charles have any say in how he would be executed? I wondered whether after finding him guilty and sentencing him to death the judge may have allowed Charles to choose the method by which he would be executed.
Thank you for such an interesting post,
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There were 59 signatories on the death warrant of Charles I – one of them being Oliver Cromwell… They were the judges at the trial of Charles… (& got their ‘just desserts’ at a later date when the British monarchy was restored)….
Beheading was the standard method of execution for dignitaries at the time….especially in cases of treason… I don’t think Charles would have had a say….
The Parliamentarians took control of the Country afterwards – for a brief period in our history we were a republic… In 1653 Cromwell assumed power – he ruled the commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland for 5 years until his death in 1658…. Thankfully the Monarchy was restored and the ‘Happy King’, Charles II – (son of Charles I) came to the throne – and brought back with him the festivals & traditions we hold so dear today… (Christmas etc)… He had fought alongside his father against Cromwell’s army – but had managed to escape to Europe before the execution of Charles I… He did apparently try to get is father’s remains moved to Westminster Abbey…but Charles I still lies in Windsor…. He’s got good company though…. King Henry VIII & co….
Thank you Charlotte,
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Thank you so much for replying to my comment. You always explain things wonderfully clearly! I feel that I now understand this fascinating period in our history much better and hope that I have more of an appreciation just how special and precious the monarchy is.
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